The science and the psychology of lying - psychological book review

All people are, in fact you are probably one of the most misleading ways of the entire planet, and with their large brains, people are able, above everything. We know what is the old joke; if we are our politicians, "If their lips move." But did you know not quite half is that your parents, your teachers lie, lies your boss, your spouse lies and everywhere what listen to go, to correct.

Some believe is a moral choice, and it's different from culture to culture, but in most cases you permeates every human endeavor in every culture. If you want to more about the psychology of lying and how to spot a liar, not knowing that it is that hard, then I have a really good research, the how book to recommend you. It has helped me in the business and allowed me, I run to forgive the liars. The book is called;

"Be;" "Moral choice in public and private life," by Sissela Bok, 1978.

The author is research the question; What is the whole truth? And what is the difference between a liar perception and the perspective of the in the fool; These are the two different points of view. There are a few of the very good chapter on this subject, and the author does not explain, there are. It is also extensively on religious is located, and must be for you based on your job or duty. These are all the dilemmas that describes the book.

She speaks also of white lies and the justification of such, together with mutual deception and even the ethics of lies for the liars. How about the enemy give their due and deception in warfare, competition, and so on, in fact, she what it calls the noble lie, together with the lies or compliments that are not earned. I believe very much enjoy the book, and if you are psychologists I recommend it, because to stop you lying itself could help. Please note all of this.

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Psychology Book Reviews

Charles Schulz autographed sketch of Snoopy for collectors

You radiating happiness, a woman, whose collections and making friends be their plenty reasons to smile. When you first meet and share Facebook and E-mail information with Linda, you immediately realize that they not only lively and engaging, but a very large peanuts and Snoopy fan. "Snoopy," the name of extroverted Beagle created cartoonist Charles Schulz, is Linda's E-mail user name.

Linda's love Snoopy ends not with their E-mail username. Learn their vast collection of Snoopy, invites you their knowledge and Linda map that was it for more than 40 years assembling a collection has. It fills an entire bedroom in their spacious home crowded. There are on the walls Snoopy, Snoopy and the gang on the ground, there are even Snoopy come from the ceiling - hung on a ceiling spiral display bracket is attached.

Visitors to Linda's Snoopy rooms are upwards and downwards and typically's respond with oh and ah's and "Oh, my goodness." No hurry to leave, as there is always a is the most more Snoopy to catch the eye. Linda's laugh and smile promotes you travel about it not estimate their collection just you!

Linda's has the Western United States traveled to Snoopy's their collection search added. What attracts collectors, such as Linda, Snoopy is perhaps be how he manages to communicate wisdom and with his facial expressions and thought balloons know all what required.

In addition to its display cabinet packed room holds court in a niche on the first floor Dormer Snoopy. Here, Snoopy dominates like he "his renowned Doghouse surrounded by more Snoopy keep their dinner dish with Woodstock is next to the shell protects". Snoopy greet visitors towels, wash cloths and SOAP, which that near located guest bathroom and a customized, use Linda's dad, stain glass lights up and catches the light comes through the roof.

Snoopy made his first appearance in October 1950, when Linda was still a young girl cartoon. She has been a fan for as long as she can remember starting with plush and other toys. Today, including their Snoopy collection numbers in thousands of jewelry is not only thousands of vintage items from the 1950's, but the recent limited edition plates and annually issued Christmas ornaments, Linda to back to phones, everything in between and on indoor "Snoopy" trees displays throughout the year.

Peanuts comic strip followers know Snoopy as a one-man show, see it as a dog with advanced intelligence and lively imagination. Snoopy has such multiple personalities as designed: Joe cool, the first World War flying ACE, literary ACE, Flashbeagle and foreign Legionnaire. Snoopy memorabilia collectors find collectables of all.

Born and raised in Southern California, Linda worked, before her retirement as an executive assistant at Southern California Rockwell International Office. During the 1970s Charles Schulz visited the Rockwell plant where she and Linda was not only meeting the cartoon artist happy, but among the lucky few who received later signed a generous "thank you" drawing of Snoopy riding a Rockwell space craft.

This beautifully framed and matted 15 x 20 "Caricature is drawing the most valuable in Linda's Snoopy collection." Is a big fan, feels she happy Snoopy and the Peanuts gang, creator, Charles M. Schulz (Sparky) met.

Charles Schulz approached the United Feature Syndicate with some of his best strips after the sale of his comics Saturday evening post and other publications. Peanuts 2 October 1950 made his first appearance with United features, one of the most popular comic strips of all time.

The peanuts cartoon ran for almost 50 years without interruption, in more than 2,600 newspapers in 75 countries. Unfortunately in November 1999, Charles Schulz suffered a stroke and then discovered that he had colon cancer. Complications from chemotherapy made it so the cartoonist could no longer read or see under clear and he announced his retirement on 14 December 1999. Until then, speed had three generations of Americans with the peanuts and "good ol' ' Charlie Brown." growing up

Schulz was cited on the today show, "I never dreamed that this would happen to me." I had always felt that would be I with the Strip until I was in my early 80s or something like that. But all the sudden it gone. I take it not way. "This was taken by me."

Charles Schulz died on 12 February 2000, at the age of 77 in Santa Rosa, California to colorectal cancer. In the same year, California Sonoma County Board of supervisors renamed the Charles M. Schulz - Sonoma County Airport after him. Emblem of the Airport offers Snoopy in goggles and scarf, inclusion in the sky over his dog house.

The Schulz family lived briefly in Colorado Springs, Colorado, where Charles Schulz, painted the wall in their home for his daughter Meredith with Patty, Charlie Brown and Snoopy. The wall was removed in 2001 and donated to the Charles M. Schulz Museum in Santa Rosa, California, the city where he lived and worked for more than 30 years.

On 17 August 2002, the Charles M. Schulz Museum and Research Center celebrates be life's work and art of cartooning and located just two blocks from his former Studio. A bronze statue of Charlie Brown and Snoopy stands in downtown Santa Rosa Depot Park.

In his will of Charles Schulz requested that the peanuts are characters as real as possible and no new comic strips to draw-based. United features has rights to the Strip, but wishes have honored Schulz been. Repetitions of comics are still is syndicated, and even after his death, specials produced new TV, but the stories are based on previous strips.

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Jewels, a simple question of vanity?

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The history of jewelry across time is not so much an account of human vanity than a reflection of the evolution of human societies and the urge of humans to create symbols and beauty.

Jewels across time

There are signs that humans have been wearing jewels from very early times on as personal adornment. Originally, these were made of materials easily available in nature such as shells, animal bones or teeth. With time humans learnt to work with different stones and metals, including gold and gems that were particularly valued in jewelry.

Our ancestors were incredibly gifted jewelers and the beauty and splendor of the old jewels still fascinates us as clearly demonstrated by the interest shown for jewel displays in museums or for itinerary exhibitions on for example the Gold of the Incas or the treasures from Egyptians tombs.

With the use of precious metals like gold or gems like diamonds, jewels became tangible signs of wealth, power and societal order. At different times, like in the Middle Age, laws were passed as to who was allowed to wear jewels, which in itself illustrates the social importance attached to jewels.

The concept of crown jewels was created in the Renaissance period where the French King, Francois 1st declared 8 fine pieces to be inalienable heirlooms of French kings.Similar legislation in other countries soon laid the ground for the treasures of the European Royal families.

19th and 20th century, a turning point

The use and significance of jewels changed drastically in the 19th century due to social, technological and cultural factors.

A new social code

Until then men wear just as sumptuous jewels as women did. Likewise they had precious stones, pearls, gold and silver threads sawed into their garments. However, around the 19th century the social code required a more sober dress code for men. Furthermore, around the same period, a much sharper differentiation was introduced between day and evening jewels, the most sumptuous being reserved for evenings and galas.

A new technology

The industrial revolution made it possible to mass produce jewels of high- as well as low-quality, thus placing jewelry within the economic grasp of a much larger segment of the population. This in turn led to a more relaxed relation to jewels acquired at a lower cost and easily replaced by new collections for a quickly changing fashion.

The modern culture

The Art Nouveau movement and the 1900 World Exhibition marked a new era where design and creativity are prized above material value, thus shifting the emphasis of the jeweler's art from the setting of stones to the artistic design. This marked the birth of what is now called art jewelry as opposed to traditional jewelry.

During the Art Deco period Coco Chanel greatly popularized costume jewelry as ornamentation to complement a particular fashionable costume or garment. Those costume jewels often made of non precious material and mass-produced marked the start of an era of disposable jewels that are fashionable for a short period of time and quickly outdated by a new fashion style.

One cannot mention design without mentioning the Danish Design. This innovative movement is characterized by quite distinct sober round lines of great esthetic quality and a predilection for silver. Georg Jensen is the most emblematic figure, but certainly not the only renowned name. Danish Design had a huge influence in the rest of Europe and in the US and laid the ground for many experimental jewels in the 1960s an 1970s.

Jewel design did not only experimented with new forms and new material - including cheap materials like aluminum, plastic, paper, nylon, but haute-couture designers such as Coco Chanel, as mentioned above, and renowned artists like Salvador Dali, Picasso or Max Ernst made a significant contribution to innovation in that field. This work challenged constricting conventions and somewhat blurred the boundaries between jewelry, fashion and fine arts.

Jewels today and tomorrow

Jewels are just attractive today as they were in the past. It is not possible at this point to anticipate what the 21st century will bring as novelty. However, looking at what is happening today might give us a hint as to tendencies.

Art jewels

One of the signs of the continued economic and cultural importance of jewels in modern society is the annual Copenhagen Jewellery Fair that is Scandinavian biggest jewelry and watch fair. This year, the royal protection of the fair, Princess Marie, delivered the prize to the winder of the "Bella Nordic Jewellery Award", that can be considered as that Nordic competition for jewelers. Though, away from that glamour, you can find many small jewel designers' ateliers scattered all over Denmark. There, you can find beautiful unique jewels created by talented people with a passion for their craft and proposing a great diversity of design and realization.

Home-made jewels

The high price of quality jewels has paved the way for a "do it yourself" movement. There is quite a sizeable number of physical or virtual shops were private clients can buy jewels parts that they can then assembled to make jewels for themselves or others. Those shops have been until now be a profitable business, but there are now sign that the marked is coming to saturation and competition is becoming harder.

Jewels, consumption society and recycling

As mentioned earlier, jewels are a reflection of societal developments. On one side mass production with cheap materials has meant a huge offer of jewels that everybody can afford. Those jewels have become ordinary objects of consumption to be used and discarded without a second thought. As a reaction to this "waste society" recycling has become a strong societal movement. Waste material, even trash, is used to new creations, including jewels. Those are per definition unique pieces coming out of the designer's imagination and sold at prices greatly fluctuating with the reputation of the designer.

Jewels for men

While there seems to be no limit of size, color and composition in women's jewels, the offer and use of men's jewelry is comparatively quite restricted. It is difficult to say whether this is due to men themselves, to societal norms on what a man can wear or due to the lack of interest and creativity on the part of the designers. It is though more and more accepted for men to wear earrings, which might be a sign that conventions and taste are changing.

Jewelry - an everlasting love story

Jewels have followed humans throughout ages and have had a social and cultural role that has evolved hand in hand with societies. In our complex modern society jewels, in one form or another, are affordable to all layers of society and are used as signals on attitudes, lifestyles and belonging. The cultural significance of jewels is difficult to determine in view of the great offer and diversity of jewels from the cheap mass-produced to the finest exclusive pieces. As Clare Phillips1 states "What remains true now, as throughout the ages, is that jewelry at its finest has the power to fascinate and inspire - which is the prime characteristic of art at its best in any of its many manifestations." It can then be conclude without any doubt that, yes, jewels are much more than an expression of human vanity.


1Clare Phillips, Jewelry from Antiquity to the Present, Thames and Hudson World of art, New York, 2008

Eliane Kristensen, a French citizen living in Denmark, decided in 2008 to give a new turn to her life. She left her secure job in an international organization to establish her own business and founded, a web shop proposing art and handicraft for sale.

Running an online business presents a lot more challenges than first anticipated, but is also an incredible source of new learning and an opportunity to meet wonderful people. Writing articles is a task she enjoys tremendously as it implies getting deeper into various aspects of art and handicraft and sharing knowledge and opinion with others.

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The family of Bach music - how long was it significant?

Sara levy, relates how the stream name in the world of music preserved the Bach sons after the death of her father's pupil of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, friend of the family Carl Phillip Emanuel Bach, collector of Bachiana and great aunt of Felix Mendelssohn.

I've known the Bach family for years and years. I studied harpsichord with Johann Sebastian Bach's son Wilhelm Friedemann. In fact, Wilhelm told me often that I was his favorite student. Wilhelm Friedemann was a brilliant organist and improviser, but he never lived a happy life and sadly died in poverty in Berlin years ago.

Johann Sebastian Bach son, Carl Phillip Emanuel, was on the other hand, hugely successful, both in Berlin and later in Hamburg, where he is a very similar to his father's St. Thomas had position post. Carl Phillip's family and I have been great friends for years and years. CPE is known for his treatise on the true art of playing keyboard instruments. The paper used by every important teachers in the country, including Beethoven's.

The musicians were also quite young the younger Bach. Johann Christoph Friedrich landed in Army aviation school, Germany as court musician, and it all his life he remained happy. In fact, called it the German army aviators school Bach now.

Johann Sebastian his youngest son, Johann Christian, who was only 15 when his father died, lived for a time with his brother Carl Phillip in Berlin, but soon left Germany. Johann Christian was the first stream to do such a thing! He studied and worked for a time in Italy, and learned to compose in a completely different style than any of the other stream. In fact, he composed mostly Opera in the Italian style. Finally, he ended up in London, where he was a court composer for the Queen.

Here is a little story show you how he from his father and brothers was different. As the story goes, the Queen Johann Christian ordered to play a concert on the organ between the acts of his new oratorio. She wanted to Johann Christian, the great Handel's style to emulate. As the story goes, was the young Bach's play so terrible that the audience hissed and laughed the young in the choir. As you can imagine, Johann Christian was humiliated, but he was simply no improviser or a composer of organ music.

With the death of Johann Sebastian Bach's the last major musical descendant of Johann Sebastian Bach was gone Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst Bach, in Berlin December 25, 1845, grandson. The long series of Bach's music has been deleted.

The music of the Bach of family music could have for centuries unnoticed when it was not for our family. I knew that the music of the Bach family great music! I knew that this great music persist so I is for my library safely, that this great music was collected not lost as much as possible. As a patron of the arts, I wanted to make sure that the great music of the past was not allowed to die!

I'm sure that you have heard my nephew Felix Mendelssohn. On Christmas day 1825 he received the large St. Matthew passion, one of the greatest oratorios of Johann Sebastian of Bach's the manuscript. In 1829 the modern premiere (the first performance since the death of Bach) this great work led my nephew to the 19 "Bach revival". I hope the music of this great master, Johann Sebastian Bach and his sons music will live on in concerts and churches for centuries to come.

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Ireland history - the Vikings

The Vikings in Ireland

The Scandinavians were known as great warriors and sailors, the long ships traveled. They started their raids in France, United Kingdom and then to Ireland AD 790. The isolated island monasteries made fertile and easy prey for these Raiders. They attacked at first only for 20 miles from the coast and later it was further inland move started. The first recorded Viking attack took place in Ireland in AD795. She it took decades, and they managed to build camps based in Dublin, an important port. The Gaelic Ireland, you was confronted without any political structure with a well organized and aggressive opponents.

With a sound base began to conquer it; then of Ireland However the Irish Kings began a fight back and forced the Vikings return and their positions in Dublin, Wexford, Waterford and to consolidate. These various Viking started settlements in small kingdoms own in very Ireland to develop, and only exacerbated the existing series of power struggles that already existed between the various kings. Once launched the Vikings, which is in Ireland, they of course more prone to attacks of already feuding Kings become.

In AD 914, a giant Viking presence was Waterford and a new campaign, where they attacked Munster and Leinster and defeated the Neills UI. The Vikings took money for the Irish company to the 11th century and they introduced. The fact that they had settled in Ireland meant that they actually to Irish society, not only coins, but also in advanced shipping techniques and trade contributed.

The main tool of Exchange cows was until the Vikings had a currency introduced. She has not only provide food and skins, but they were also heavily used for the purchase, sale and trade goods. It is still a strong sense of the Viking influence, particularly in Dublin. It is a very good Viking tour which it takes place and you have the option, it is worth to understand this as the River Liffey in Dublin, made it possible for the Viking attacks.

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Hanging gardens of Babylon

The hanging gardens of Babylon, sometimes also known as the hanging gardens of Semiramis, of the Babylonian King Nebuchadrezzar II, built circa 600 BC. The hanging gardens of Babylon were located in the today's Iraq, close to the Euphrates. King Nebuchadnezzar II built the immense lofty gardens probably his mistress, Urtikart, to settle down, for the scenic green splendour of the media, yearned to their former home. The hanging gardens of Babylon is said to have been destroyed in the second century b.c.. in an earthquake, and are the only one of the seven ancient wonders of the world, whose Existenz is not verifiable through the ruins.

It is generally accepted that the hanging gardens of Babylon of in all probability not actually "hung" but rather, the word was "hanging" derived an approximate translation of the Greek word "Kremastos", meaning "overhanging". The gardens described as 100 meters long by 100 feet wide to immense quadrangle terraces of brick and in step-like levels arranged built shaped into. Each Vault contained the terraces, which were built under them and supported the entire weight of the garden. On the same level as the city walls was the highest point of the garden and the top vault at an impressive height of 75 meters. Cover the vault were roof beams around the stone 16 metres in length. It was at this time for such slabs of stone to be used in Babylon go unheard. Reed mixed with thick tar were on the bars, followed by two levels of brick and a layer of lead designed to moisture in the dirt from seeping through the roof stop strata. Enough dirt was top of the roof, then you select piled planting of even the largest trees. The stone described some authors the gardens as increased for high columns, to the citizens of Babylon, among them are enabled.

Although it is obvious that was in the dry desert climate, which they feed gardens without some sort of irrigation could have, there are conflicting theories about how this irrigation was achieved. There are additional debate whether the hanging gardens is actually existed from Babylon mainly because scientists today are that only a complex irrigation system could have carried out the water from the Euphrates to the point, where it used would have, to water the garden. The green hanging gardens are thoroughly with Greek and Roman historians no documentation or mention of the hanging gardens however confirmed in the Babylonian records is available. It is possible that the actual location with existing gardens in ancient Assyria, could have exchanged over the years, is, that it Tablet fonts are the unmistakable document gardens at that location.

It is believed by some that over the years the hanging gardens of Babylon with gardens can have confused existed in Nineveh, on the eastern side of the River Tigris, since tablets from there clearly show gardens. Documentation of Nineveh tablets, illustrate have a method of raising the water to the height required to irrigate the hanging gardens of Babylon. The missing mention of the hanging gardens in the entire Babylonian history, as well as the fact that it, that there was no ruins, who can prove the massive gardens, mean that the hanging gardens of Babylon remain the only unverified structure under the seven ancient wonders of the world to this day.

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Bach, the King and I, with the time in our hands

Johann Sebastian Bach visits the King

Bach, the wife of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, the second son of j.s. Bach visit Johann Sebastian Bach to the Court of King Frederik of major Berlin as relatives of Johann Maria Dannemann.

My father-in-law, Johann Sebastian Bach, was just here in Berlin for a visit. It was such a joy for all of us spend time together. He got to meet his two latest grandchildren: Johann August, who is now two years old and our beautiful little daughter Anna Carolina Philippina.

Carl Phillip he was so excited to his father before the Court to bring and introduce him to the musician works with daily. She had a great time together to make music. However, it was the visit to our King Frederik of large, that Carl Philipp's father most enjoyed.

As Carl Phillip in me reference, found his father first with Frederik on the Potsdam Palace with an exercise in joint improvisation. The next day, my father-in-law Holy played an organ recital in the Church in Potsdam. Also, he was invited as the evening Chamber music run at which time he this time improvised a six-Groove on the subject of his own. The next few days were occupied with visit of the new Opera and look in the institutions in Potsdam and Berlin.

The venerable old master, Johann Sebastian Bach's visit was an event that has been described in the newspaper Potsdam the King. Here, and I quote article for you: "on the last Sunday of the famous acting from Leipzig, Lord Bach, came to the Court." When his Majesty was informed that the action had arrived, he gave orders for Bach, be approved. Bach was invited, on the fortepiano, a theme by Bach-looking as a Fugue play are treated. This was done so well, that was not only his Majesty, but all were amazed at present. "Mr Bach found so beautiful that he intends, a regular joint for engraving write the topic."

My father-in-law has now returned to Leipzig, and we are told that he diligently Fugue theme works in a development of the King of Prussia. He began writing down of the fugue which he improvised for the King, but the project has become much larger. He is now his work the musical offering (Muiskalishces victim) call. It will be paid to a work in several movements of Frederick of the great. The royal theme is used as the basis for all movements. It will be the next monumental composition by the revered Johann Sebastian Bach.

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Magazine subscription - specific positive factors in

Magazines are a good way to to your reading practice luminaires and much knowledge to different sectors of society. Development of a reading habit is a healthy practice but find the right kind of books can be sometimes difficult in this tech savvy world. However, a magazine to find can be not such a difficult choice.

Can be at any time magazines almost anywhere in the city. There are so many places where you will find stalls... In these places you can find plenty of them. It is correctly select from the available there large area according to your taste and choice. However, is it always possible to rush to get the latest book for the nearest corner? I hope that the answer No. To make only read books and magazines not your day for life. You have to work hard to earn for a living. In addition, if you have enough money in your pocket, you are right to life in the location, either you get read with the purchase of books.

You have to work hard for, very little amount of time to the other things on a regular basis in. Rushing to a magazine corner and buy some on a weekly or monthly basis can sometimes be a difficult task. Thus it passes may something, that you are not, some to collect important question of a leading journal. Can it missing some important articles, featured in the issues.

Therefore, to prevent this type of situation, is the best policy take for the subscription offers. You can be a Subscriber from almost any available on the market. Although there are different terms and conditions for individual publishers, but the basic principle is the same. You need to for a period of time and the problems will be achieved in the referred place within the exact time.

Offered to subscriptions offer throughout, take have the Publisher, to the fee required to he. Most of these charges are given with some additional discount. You say for example, if a specific packages without use the subscription offer, you then purchase the exact cost price of the individual problems of numbers. We take that each issue costs $3. Then they take for a period of six months it will cost $3 x 06 = $18. But the subscription special use can save some money in this scenario. The offer can be like "Take figures for six months and questions for eight months" which means that for the next two months after the subscribed six months, you be your free issue always! Is it no good bargain! In addition, you must need not be overhead in noise in the store to collect them. They are delivered at your doorstep free of charge.

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Ireland history - the battle of the Boyne

The battle of the Boyne can only be understood by a first look at what happened during the siege of Derry

The siege of Derry

King James II was converted to Catholicism and his brother when he married Mary, the daughter of Italian Duke of Modena. He left England in 1679 and not for six years, to be back on the throne in England successor. He began the task of restoring the Catholic religion in both England and Ireland. Talbot as Commander of his troops in Ireland and his brother-in-law, Lord Clarendon as Lord-Lieutenant Colonel appointed. Talbot mainly Protestant militias disarmed and appointed Catholic army officers and other important posts within the judiciary. 1687 Was also Lord Lieutenant Talbot as Clarendon had proved to be a rather weak person. Talbot, now known as the Earl of Tirconnell was strictly Catholic and this action stirred, with many of them leave a panic among the Protestants to their homes and moved to England.

Sent Lord Danby for Prince William of orange in 1688. Prince William was a Dutch Prince and was also known as James's Protestant daughter Mary. The English establishment had in panic if James had a son, and could be part of the Catholic dynasty. As James II is one of William's arrival immediately he fled to France and William took the throne of England without any opposition. William and Mary joint rulers declared and James was Louis XIV of France in the yard looking for help. Tirconnell remained in Ireland and had armed the Catholics to protect Ireland for James II.

The young apprentice

The North of Ireland was especially with English settlers and Protestant soldiers who are on one side filled with Prince William of Orange. The town of Enniskillen refused, Talbot admit, and this began the war of the revolution. Lord Antrim marched as they were unsure to do hesitant to Derry and the magistrates. A number of young apprentice of boys, grabbed the keys and managed, the gates to close prevented the Talbot's Jacobite army in the city. This young apprentice were actually in the city as part of a development plan, which was organized by the city of London and his Guild. Richard Hamilton was sent to the North, take Ulster as the Protestants to defences had begun and he came in Derry 1689. It followed what is now called the siege of Derry is known, which lasted 105 days.

When James in Kinsale arrived, he met with Richard Talbot, had convened a Catholic Parliament. He brought also with around 100 French officers, about 1,000 Irish refugees, weapons and ammunition. Patrick Sarsfield was one of the French officers that he had brought with him. During the siege of Derry James he went Poynings law the full freedom of worship to the Parliament and it lifted now allows. He picked up also the Act of settlement. The siege of Derry and Hamilton to try to take the city. From within the walls of the city, many surrender demands and a Colonel Lundy the Governor was one such person. This call, that he was forced to his escape over the walls make in the night and in disguise was so unpopular.

The only hope for those within the walls of Derry was using troops with the sea, as all land of Hamilton's men was surrounded. Finally help with ships arriving in Lough Foyle under the control of General Kyle arrive. However, see lining the banks on the forts and see a defensive boom structure in the Lough she would go no further and dropped anchor. Waited for 46 days as the food of less grew and many people simply started to die of starvation. Ships were finally in the sent and crashed through the boom deliveries and relief of Derry. The siege was now over and the next day, Hamilton marched his army away. The Jacobites were also in Enniskillen and Sarsfield now returned Ulster to Athlone firmly in the hands of the Williamites leave.

The battle of the Boyne

Battle of Derry was just the beginning of the fight. King William sent a now 80-year-old Dutch called General Schomberg, which landed in the city of Bangor in Northern Ireland. He had brought 15,000 men with him about captured Carrickfergus and then made his base in Dundalk. He suffered heavy losses and reinforcements had to search. His army was also badly affected by the disease. A year 14 had Prince William in Carrickfergus later June 1690 with a diverse range of forces from Germany, Denmark, and some French Huguenots. The most important was that 35,000-40000 all well armed it and were very well equipped.

25.000, Which contain some still loyal English regiments, some Irish and the French troops of Louis XIV have James. James had advanced from Dublin, Dundalk and was now on the South Bank of the River Boyne. Probably, the most important fact was that the army mainly recruits, the poorly armed and were drilled and was with a guide, the not sent, or in fact decided. However, William was recognised as one of the best generals of all time and he had good a larger army under his command were trained and well armed.

William was injured from a cannon shot and many on the Irish side believed him to be dead. Boyne in County Meath, was the two sides in the battle of the River on 1 July 1690, when Duke William's army started to cross the River. William sent 10,000 men under the command of General Douglas about upstream, crossing five miles an area that even though James had warned, had decided, leave unguarded. The rest of the army attacked in four different places.

The Dutch blue guards under the command of General Schomberg in the Centre of James'a army attacked and Schomberg was killed as a shot in the neck by a bullet of a musket. The battle raged now and a mile with William fight about the River lower down in Drogheda. Although the Irish army resistance done they were no match for William's army and a decisive victory was won by William. The army moved back towards Dublin and James fled at the first sign of defeat. It causes Sarsfield, to announce "Change Kings and we will fight you over and over again."

James made his retirement when he reached to Kinsale and went back to Brest in France leave to do Tirconnell, what he could. This battle is still celebrated on the 12th July which as so Orange for Prince William called are known. The reason for the latter date is due to the change from the Julian calendar to the Gregory 1752 calendar.

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How to create music for the organ sons Carl Phillip and Wilhelm Friedemann Bach

The life of the Bach sons, Wilhelm Friedemann, Carl Philipp Emanuel, Johann Gottfried Bernhard and Johann Christian relatives of Anna Magdalena, second wife of Johann Sebastian Bach.

We are so proud of our family. All of our children are born musician. Why could we have consort as full vocal and instrumental works with family. It is a pleasure to create glorious music together.

Our two oldest young, Wilhelm Friedemann and Carl Philipp Emanuel studied at the University of Leipzig. Wilhelm Friedemann studied mathematics, philosophy and law, and graduated from the prestigious school in the year 1733. At the same time, Carl Philipp Emanuel, educated at the University of Leipzig began to study law also. Carl Philipp still at home with us life and continued as an Assistant to his father.

After Wilhelm Friedemann his Educationat completed the University of Leipzig, he became organist at the Dresden Saint Sophia Church in 1733. Our Wilhelm Friedemann known as a great improviser and organist. Therefore he created yet not as Prostavlenie his music on paper incredible music for those who attend the services at the Saint Sophia Church, but he. Finally, however he has committed to some of his glorious organ Chorale Preludes paper.

Academics be finished as Carl Philipp 1738 the Crown Prince, and soon to King of Prussia, Carl Phillip in Berlin was appointed to his court as the royal harpsichordist. This is a very good position and a ThatI believe that Carl Philipp holds for many years. In fact, he just finished a series of organ sonatas for Princess Anna Amalia, sister of the King, studied the organ with him.

Our youngest son and my 11th baby, Johann Christian, has already begun his keyboard and theory lessons and is good. Don't you know you that there is play our family tradition for each child with keyboard and theory start with her father at the age of eight. (# 136) As usual, our house full of the sound of the keyboard from morning till night with the kids and I practice and play and JS to work in his Office compose and compose. Right now, he is busy reworking some old Cantata to make music and new collections of organ chorales.

We have removed even, just the two of us, for a week holiday to Weißenfels. We need some time away. The death of our 24 year-old son, Johann Gottfried was so suddenly and with Wilhelm Friedemann home again, well, it was just time to for a bit. We need some time to recover.

After two years of letter writing and gifts to the King, Johann Sebastian finally received the prestigious title of court composer. Since then, life has here get easier in Leipzig. The many authorities have stopped hassling my husband, and he is able to do his work in peace. He is much organ music, compose, which he plays in his many considerations and organ studies in the field. He travels much and is highly regarded. Johann Sebastian Bach is today a synonym for Leipzig.

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Johann Sebastian Bach, father of the great music, takes his final breath

The last years of his life as relatives of Catharina Dorothea, daughter of Johann Sebastian Bach, Johann Sebastian Bach

My father suffered eye problems for the last ten years of his life. Until the beginning of 1749, he could no longer work full capacity. He was eye simply tired and broken by his constant problems, sometimes rendered him nearly blind.

Make matters worse, in addition, the terrible and tactless authorities in the City Council allows even a candidate, a Mr Harrer, for which my father one year before the death of my father take the post of Cantor of St. Thomas. The town Chronicle also reported that the authorities on the great Johann Sebastian Bach were counted death. Yet, on my father, as he was his wife Anna Magdalena and his new son-in-law able, with his compositions and correspondence with the help and former pupil Johann Christoph Altnickol married my sister Elisabeth Juliane Friederica. It was all a difficult period for us.

Finally, my was father's eyesight and health dramatically. He fought so and so frustrated in not able to see that when we heard that a famous English ophthalmologist named John Taylor was visiting Leipzig, has been decided that our love would father the painful operation restore his sight.

The nagging eye surgery performed by Dr. Taylor in March seemed a little help, but then a month later, my father's eyesight was almost disappeared again. Dr. Taylor therefore this terrible operation performed a second time.

Unfortunately, this process was very bad and dad was then totally blind and severely weakened by the acid test and the harmful drugs. We sought to make it pleasant but he never won his strength.

From July 22 took Magdelana alongside his dad his last supper in our home with his children and his beloved Anna. He died only six days later in the evening of on July 28 at a stroke. We he buried three days later at St. John's cemetery.

From the pulpit of St. Thomas of my father's death was announced: "God of the Esteemed and highly respected Mr Johann Sebastian Bach, Court are peaceful and blessed Serene Highness in Saxony, as well as acting composer of his Royal Majesty in Poland and electoral Prince of Anhalt-Cothenund Cantor at St. Thomas' school", at the St. Thomas square. "

The largest of the Bach had left this world for the peace of the next.

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Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

Between 353 and 350 BC, was the mausoleum at Halicarnassus, who would become one of the seven wonders of the ancient world what city centre of Bodrum in southeastern Turkey is now in the built. The mausoleum at Halicarnassus was a tomb of Mausolus, which was a satrap or Governor of the region. The tomb of Artemisia was ordered, for her husband after his death in 353 BC were Mausolus and Artemisia II of Caria man and woman, as well as brother and sister, and she had ruled the adjoining regions of Halicarnassus for a period of twenty-four years. The tradition of the sibling marriage was often in Caria, and first and foremost a strategy for the storage of the superiority and wealth in the family. After the death of Mausolus Artemisia will be reversed by his death, that they his ashes in with water connection and they drank. You ordered the awe inspiring Tomb in his memory then built. The magnificent tomb revealed soon so that his name was the basis for the word mausoleum.

Perched on a hill above the city of Halicarnassus, was the grave in a courtyard. Consists entirely of white marble, the great mausoleum is probably reached a height of 148 metres. Greek architects Satyros and Pythis will be credited a blend of Lycian, Greek and Egyptian architectural elements of the mausoleum with the design of Halicarnassus, containing. Below three four-sided Layers dialog was a base of the steps of 60 metres in length. The steps were guarded stone lions. The middle layer was covered with a pyramid built from thirty-six ionic columns. A statue stood in the middle of each pair of columns. The focus of this level was a block of marble. No cost Artemisia also Scopas of PAROS, Bryaxis and Timotheus, was brilliant Greek sculptor of Leochares, the in have been brought to bas-reliefs, carve, particularly to take account of the battle between Centaur and Lapith and between the Greeks and the Amazons, in each of the four walls of this section Center. The most famous of these artists was Scopas, who had designed the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus. The four sculptor and architect have been supported by a countless number of additional craftsmen. The Tomb itself was within the highest point of the roof and included a 20-foot model of a four-horse chariot consisting of marble, which kept a picture of Mausolus and Artemisia. The mausoleum of Halicarnassus deserves a unique historic position as it was one of the few of that time, was not built to a deity to honor.

The mausoleum of Halicarnassus survived the fall of the city to Alexander the great and guard the ruins of Halicarnassus sixteen centuries remained. A series of earthquakes destroyed the columns and catapulted the chariot to the ground. The only identifiable part of the base itself was 1404 AD. The stones of the mausoleum were used to build the Bodrum Castle in 1494. British Museum is now home to many of the remains of the mausoleum of Halicarnassus. Grant's Tomb, the shrine of remembrance in Melbourne, Los Angeles City Hall and the House of the Temple in Washington, D.C. are just some of the present building is based on the architecture the mausoleum of Halicarnassus.

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Urmila's lament – even the poet forgot it


Dashrath, the King of Ayodhya, had four sons by his three wives. Kausalya had Bharat RAM, Kaikeyi and Sumitra gave birth to twins Lakshman and Shatrughn. You all loved each other, but RAM and the Lakshman were always together; Bharat and Shatrughn moved together.

The story revolves around RAM and his wife Sita. As Dashrath, announced his intention to RAM, the oldest, Crown Kaikeyi demanded the throne for her son Bharat. The King suffered a major shock and died. But RAM voluntarily to his stepmother desire to meet and went into the forest for fourteen years, as called for by Kaikeyi. SITA, his wife and the Lakshman accompanied to him. Thirteen years she wandered in the forest, its beauty and Tapasya do (think concentrated) enjoy the hospitality of the Sage.

In the last year proved tragic. A gripping story made the epic the events of this crucial year. Ravan, the King of Sri Lanka, had a fancy for SITA. He sent his uncle in the form of a golden spotted deer and SITA wanted to have it. Both RAM and Lakshman tried capture in vain, to him, but the animal deceived and led the brothers away when Ravan came and kidnapped SITA.

In the South, Bali and his brother Sugriv fought for the Kingdom and a woman (all monkeys, apparently there are no men were) and RAM killed send Bali, by an arrow secretly from his hiding place on the ground. On the other hand helped to defeat Sugriv and his army of monkeys Ravan.

Vibhishan, Ravan's brother, was in Sri Lanka is located and rescued SITA from captivity. As she had spent a long time in captivity, she was asked to prove her chastity to jump into the fire. You met and all returned to Ayodhya where Bharat was judgment by the proxy. He sat on the throne RAM's shoes and slept on the floor, eating only the minimum; So was his AWE to RAM.

During the reign of RAM, celebridad recalled the wishes of his subjects affectionately as Ramraj. If there were whispers of the chastity of SITA, she was thrown into the forest by her husband when she was carrying twins, Lav and Kush. The King wanted to call them back, but the proud woman committed suicide, disappear from the Earth. In contrast to other epics Ramayan is the sacred texts of Hindus, who read at home and in the temples during the month of Shravan (July-August 15).


Describes the scene where the Prince meet their mothers before setting out into the forest, they see Kausalya and Sumitra. Sumitra advises them on how she should be the long journey into the unknown forest, face, where they can have enormous difficulties. RAM tries to dissuade SITA, but she insisted to her beloved.

What about Urmila? She could have followed suit. It would be good company for SITA. But Lakshman even forget to say good bye to her. I am confused by this big omission IN VALMIKI's RAMAYAN. RAM SITA treating has been written about much. Kumaran Asan wrote the beautiful and sad poem "Chinthavishta Aya Sita" (SITA immersed in thought). A number of commentators have mercilessly criticized RAM; But why ignore them poor, lonely girl Urmila? I think that never do they loved Lakshman. Otherwise such as he could go away? He liked ever her, who spent fourteen years excited to see a glimpse of their beloved?

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Temple of Artemis in Ephesus

The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus is one of the seven ancient wonders of the world. Ephesus is one Greek port city is located at the West coast of Turkey is that of the modern town of Selçuk. The Temple of Artemis there actually were in various forms in the bronze age, which have been destroyed and rebuilt on the same site in the course of which goes back years. The most fabulous revisions of the temple was the last Temple, which was started in the year 550 BC and was rumored to have taken over 120 years. Architect Chersiphron and his son of Metagenes were responsible for the design of the temple built in 550 b.c.. The temple to have burned in the same night of Alexander the great was born. It is rumored that Artemis so caught up in the safe birth of Alexander of the great was their temples from the burning ground could save.

It was almost six years later before the new temple will be built in its place would. Scopas of PAROS was the greatest architect of his time and was chosen to design the new temple. She was surrounded by marble stairs, which ascended a terrace of four hundred metres in length. There is debate over whether the temple ceiling was crowned with wooden tiles or open-air in design. It was probably built the first building with marble. Within the temple were 127 marble columns expand sixty metres high. It is the thirty-six columns where the lower halves of the columns in the high relief were carved were amazing feature. High relief is a form of sculpture, marble columns, increase to more than half of their deep appear human figures or animals of background, in this case.

Within the temple, there were four bronze statues of Amazons and the statue of Artemis. The Greek people revered Cybele, who was mother of the gods and Ephesus dedicated to Cybele in 10th century BC, dating and a citywide Festival, the Ephesia, to her honour. The Temple of Artemis and the statue of Artemis dedicated resembled Ephesus Artemis, the close Cybele, mother of the gods and fertility goddess, was the Greek Artemis, Diana, the goddess of the hunt.

The Temple of Artemis was almost completely destroyed by the Ostrogoths in A.D. 262. At that time were the city and the following of Artemis in decline. A century later when city, rebuilt he refused Constantine, the temple to replace, because he had no interest in pagan temple, after giving a Christian. An architect to find sent by the British Museum to the temple site found at the bottom of the River Cayster that turtle in 1869 by John wood, the first of the columns in the temple ruins. The sculptured remains he found back to the Museum shipped, where it can be viewed today. 1904 Was another British expedition of D.G. Hograth is five temples layered a top of the other led. In the present, only a single column in a marshy field to the location of the Temple of Artemis remains represent a sad end for one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

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What is the Chinese new year?

Most of us already have new year according to the Gregorian calendar, the date 1 January is celebrated. But there is a huge population in the world, which is done with your celebration not. In fact there are to an upcoming 15-day party full of reunions and some collect this data. It begins on the first day of the new moon and ends in the full moon on the fifteenth day. The Chinese new year is this traditional celebration.

The Chinese new year or the lunar new year is the famous and spectacular under Chinese holiday. It is based on the Moon calendar where time displays phases of the Moon and the solar year. The lunar cycle is typically 29 and half days. But the Chinese, make up time with the solar year, a further month every few years. This is the same as the leap years, the Gregorian calendar. This is also the reason why the actual holiday ends on the last week of January or the first week in February.

Not only this holiday celebrate China with the largest population in the world, by itself. Even its neighboring countries, where the cultures have influenced, celebrate. These are the Korea, Japan, Tibet, the Mongolia, Viet Nam and Bhutan. While countries where most Chinese also the Chinese new year seen. These are the Philippines, Hong Kong, Macau, Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. But not really this event as a public holiday regard countries such as the United States, Australia and Canada it or confirm it stamps through their China cities and post.

While there is the Chinese new year, reflected a lot of traditions and practices that are also non-Chinese. It shows the lush and colourful decorations symbol for luck and wealth for business and prosperity for houses. Food and cuisine, which especially is added to this good luck and harmony for the occasion. The Festival is also the Dragon, dance and Fireworks, which are not only for the eyes but also for their wealth and happiness. And of course the literal symbol for wealth, are on actual money envelopes of oldest red the young.

As fun as enjoyable to watch and observe the new year, celebrating each spectacular as the fireworks and parties during new year's Eve, it remains red orange and gold instead of another tradition in some parts of the world where you can see everything,, and believes in good driving forces for good luck.

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Matryoshka - the Russian doll

Matryoshka is a wooden doll, containing several layers of the doll, but smaller. The word matryoshka comes from the Russian word "Mat" meaning mother. Matryoshka represents birth many children and desire for riches. Russian women in General set this doll next to her bed and hope that they have many children. Usually the doll has four to nine levels, but some can have many more. There are currently a matryoshka, the thirty layers at the Museum of modern art in New York City has. A matryoshka with 72 layers is in the Guinness Book of world records. It was a gift to the Japanese Government.

The matryoshka comes from Japan. The doll from Japan is the God of the seven luck.

The first Russian Matryoshka doll was designed by Sergey Maly settled in 1891. Was to educate young children. During this time, people from many different ethnic group in Russia lived. On the matryoshka doll folk costume painted at each level of children of different cultures displayed.

It became famous, when he received the Grand Prize at the world exhibition in Paris, France. Later, it became a representation of the Russian people, society and historical background. In 1917 after the Russian Revolution, representation of ideology was banned, only the faces of the Russian farmers remain on the doll.

The matryoshka is a delicate work of art. There are fifteen manufacturing process to make the round form. You are using only a chisel and a carving knife. To the doll painting that must must be material soft and the painter have great craftsmanship. Sometimes signed his name on the bottom of the craftsmen of the doll together with the amount of time it took him to finish the work.

Highlight was the production at the Olympic Games 1980 in Moscow. Ten million sets have been produced. Together with the official Russian bear mascot Misha, people of all bought the matryoshka is home to the world.

Based on the region where the matryoshka, submitted the doll somewhat differently. The matryoshka of Zagorsk has blank spots. It has orange and much to give, a warm red and lively feel. Samyonobo the Russian doll is much larger and has brighter colors red, blue and yellow.

Although the Russian doll was created to represent Russian culture, the matryoshka has paintings of popular icons like the Beatles, Bill Clinton, and many professional athletes today.

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People are the problem - save the people!

The terrible events in the world such as unrest, protests, hostile governments, human rights violations and war has pointed out not long ago, I like a. Interestingly, we discussed the Government crack downs in China, Burma, Tunisia, Pakistan, Iran, Venezuela, Bolivia, Africa, and a few of the former Soviet Union countries. Of course, in January and February 2011 critical have to reminded me things in Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and why I always notice that people are the problem.

It is not the form of Government or economic philosophy. Is it not the climate, or the region - if who knows you get up to to it, the problem with the self, perhaps they need to grow up only, or need some more time in the evolutionary cooking pot? You are not ready yet. For what you questions; for the next step for the peaceful forward progression.

In fact, I try not by me as a human being a very problematic species - judging by cruel everything what you do that fight that and all and problems that cause they think, because I find it. My acquaintance replied; "I agree with you, every day I am more surprised about human behavior."

Yes, they are right, you know, it is a pity, because it SO much potential in the way they should always together and do what is best. Everything you think to fix this problem? She told me what they were most disturbed; "The indifference to the pain which is only makes me feel sick and makes me ask me what kind of humanity we in life?" "Where to go we?"

Some companies are not well. Religion sometimes helps, sometimes it is offensive. It is usually not the religion, form, or Government, the system or the Government itself, which is the problem, only sometimes the wrong people run things. Good people, doing good things, bad people do bad things, and sometimes bad people doing good things and good people do bad things.

What is is perhaps important that you look in the mirror and questions about where you are to do?

What do you think?

Well, Mr is reader to do something about it, look it in the mirror the queue, and to address these issues. Why not some adopted, that it, and see what you with top come. If you have an idea, or a plan to address these realities and calm let me know that the wild animals (people). Think about it.

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The most famous Spanish Explorer

With look at history, we owe much of what we know about the world today the travel that took researchers in the Elizabethan age,. Unexplored areas of the world were discovered with their ability, ambition and courage.

The Conqueror find target, gold, silver and spices established the first means of communication between different races. Here are some of the most accomplished conquerors and their achievements.

The most popular Portuguese and Spanish explorers were in the age of exploration in the Elizabethan age. A little after these men paved the way, went to English explorers in search of precious metals, spices, food and artifacts, which had found their colleagues.

It was through the efforts of the Spanish adventurers that reality was monopolies on the Eastern spice trade and the power and wealth of the Spanish Empire.

Spanish explorers made new discoveries which were not only gold and silver but also influence their country.

While these researchers and their sponsors were the main motives, were there other objectives such as prestige, building the Spanish Empire, creating more opportunities for the trade and Catholicism also spread. For their faith and their religion defied Spanish Explorer of the seas and the unknown.

It all began with the construction of the Spanish. As Princess Isabella of Castile, with Ferdinand II of Aragon married in 1469, the Spanish empire began to flourish.

A few years later she financed the voyage of the Explorer Christopher Columbus to America. Just two years after this trip were all countries in the new world called was claimed by Spain.

Christopher Columbus is one of the most famous of Spanish travellers. He was born in Genoa, Italy, but his survey were all in the name of the Spain.

The other remarkable Spanish explorers are Vasco Nu?ez de Balboa, Amerigo Vespucci and Juan Ponce de León.

Vespucci was born also Italian, but he was naturalized as a Spaniard. 10 Was his first trip that he achieved the Guiana Mainland on may, 1497 where a month later. The name America was coined by his name.

In the context of Juan Ponce de Le?n was his fame is set in the Explorer, who went in search of the fountain of youth. He was also known for is the first European foot in Florida.

De Balboa is on the other hand, a researcher, known as the first European who actually see the Pacific Ocean from the East Coast in 1513 was.

I think we can say that not all aspects of the conquest were harmful for our communities looking back. There were many advances brought the Conqueror as new languages, literature, music, geography, and cartography.

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History of Greece of 11th century right before the World War 1

Most people know a bit of Greece. Such as Athens and his incredible contributions to the art philosophy architecture and democracy. As well as Sparta had that bred and trained each of its citizens to the most formidable warriors the old world ever seen. But what about after that. What happened to Alexander of the great and mighty Roman Empire? That is, what this article says.

Greece before the eleventh century was the core of the Byzantine Empire. But this began to change century when Constantinople was captured in the Fourth Crusade by the invading Latins. Although the Byzantines finally area can take back their city remains a battlefield. Especially with the arrival of the Ottoman Turks.

The Ottoman Turks start to advance in the Balkans and Greece comes quickly in the sights. However, delay is when the Ottoman Empire are attacked by the Mongols in the East. When the Ottoman Empire to start again in the Balkans and Greece move falls under their rule and it is the Hungary which reinforce in order to keep them back.

The Greeks were able to maintain its independence in 1821. Before that it was from dozens of projects in particular wealthy families try to steal Greece of the oppression. A group of Greeks in the Russian port of Odessa on the coast of the dead sea work but on a larger scale, as they March South with as an army with Russian support. 25 Rises in March 1821 inspired by this army under the leadership of Alexandros Ypsilantis Greece than one despite the fact that the expedition failed. The Ottomans react quickly but are amazed by the guerilla tactics of the Greeks.

The Greek revolutionaries are not only outnumbered, but also to fight matters worse with each other. The revolution is the dark, if a large army of Egypt to help which is Ottoman Empire. But even this army and Navy have finished incomplete revolution.

England is very impressed by Greece and the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the United Kingdom is very impressed by Greece. So England with the help of Russia and France bring together a large Navy to help Greece. The purpose of which was fleet originally only to the Ottomans they scare but instead engage the Ottoman fleet and win a great victory to kill sinking 60 ships and 8000 enemy troops with little loss. This is the turning point for the Greeks.

Although the war lasts for 5 years, the Greece a nation who become the first King is a 17 year old young Otto of Bavaria. Although most of Otho (can be written for Otho Otto or Othon, but usually Otho in English) rule is good. At the beginning and end are but not so good. But he accepted a Constitution he constantly tries, Greece bring back to an autocracy, and he is finally eliminated.

The next King is a Danish Prince, he crowned George I. George's first priority is everything that once was Greece brings back under Greek control. So, he will continue the Greek war of independence. He is able, several of the Greek Islands as including Crete and Macedonia accept in the North. It does this through a combination of war and politics.

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Lighthouse of Alexandria

Was one of the more than seventeen cities called Alexandria by Alexander, which the great founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt before he 323 b.c.. died ? Alexandria in Egypt is one of the few as to modern day this. ? one of the seven wonders of the world survives, the lighthouse of Alexandria on the island of Pharos built, a small island off the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. ? the lighthouse of Alexandria was a tower, the construction of which was ordered by Ptolemy SOTER, after he himself King in 305 BC. ? lighthouse of Alexandria was not completed to between 280 and 247 BC, during the life of Claudius Ptolemy SOTER's son, Claudius Ptolemy Philadelphos. ? took twenty years to complete the lighthouse of Alexandria, and was created ? as a beacon for sailors in the night a artificial dam are known as the Heptastadion, the island of Pharos with mainland connected and served as a port border on one edge of the city.

The height of the lighthouse of Alexandria assumed that 380 feet. were ? it merged built from overlapping bright stone blocks along with molten lead second bear ? the first lighthouse in the world, amounting only to the great pyramids of Giza the anger of the sea., ??ancient coins portray the lighthouse of Alexandria as tiers striking with three. ? which was first a square base include the hundreds of storage rooms and a large spiral ramp allows materials moved up to the top ? are middle tier was an eight sided Tower, with a cylindrical top. ? combined a 16-foot statue of what apparently be, that the similarity of Poseidon above the tower. the lighthouse of Alexandria was ? municipality surrounded by sea at all, but the directions. ? to the East and South at the top of the lighthouse mirror reflecting sunlight in the day and presents a fire in the evening ?, that the entrance to the Tower of a ramp for 600 foot, that was accessed was based sixteen successively higher curved arcs until it ? reaches the doorway., although rumor stated that Ptolemy refused Sostratus is thus mark the tower with his signature, Claudius Ptolemy discovered years later under the plaster under a different inscription commemorating as an architect, was this inscription in Greek:

"Sostratus of Cnidus, son of Dexiphanes, the gods of protection of the sea"

As on the island of Pharos lighthouse of Alexandria was built, the word Pharos tribe "Lighthouse" in Italian, Spanish, French and Romanian languages. ? and 2008 was the possible theory that Pharos was, that the vertical scale used the size of the Earth was announced at the first measurement of.

The lighthouse of Alexandria destroyed a series of earthquakes from 956 to 1323, so much that an Arab traveller no longer accessible. ? from 1480 was documented the Tower, even the ruins was gone and used some of the crumbling stone Qaitbay, Sultan of Egypt, a medieval fortress on the site. ? 1994 establishing ruins was believed by what, to the lighthouse of Alexandria were excavated by divers on the floor of Alexandria's Eastern Harbor. ? it the lighthouse of Alexandria is still possible to dive centre and other ruins, nor see lying on the ocean floor.

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Asked symbolism and significance

Bats are the most misunderstood animals. Many stories, movies and myths described creatures, the people's party to suck blood and which can turn them as dangerous and harmful as Dracula. For this reason started bats have a bad reputation. Although some people feared, are bats to human health and the environment benefit.

The Indians the bat recognised as an animal, which is very sensitive to its surroundings and therefore consider this animal as a symbol of intuition, dreams and visions. When special energy required was the spirit of the bat, would often be called as the "night sight", what they called illusion to see through the ability. The Indians it is also the symbol of communication because she watched the bats be a very social creature. People believe that have a bat, as your Totem, you are very aware of your environment and sometimes can be overly sensitive to the feeling of the other.

In China, bats represent good luck to bring prosperity and happiness or peace. In Japan, bats represent chaos, unrest and misfortune. Scotish believed that if flying bats rise and rise, it does so by a witch House. By Finns, it was believed that when one sleeps, the soul takes the form of a bat. Early Christians believed that the devil transformed into a bat, to harass people. An Australian tribe is to kill the bats also will shorten your life. Some even believe that with the right eye of the bat not visible will make.

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Doomsday: Your end of the world in art, science, mythology, and prophecy

I'd better start by defining exactly what I have in mind with the phrase 'the end of the world' as 'the end' can take several forms.

Firstly though to the time it takes for an the end of the world event: A real end of the world scenario will be a short term event, lasting from mere seconds (say a gamma ray burster) to several months (say a pandemic, all out nuclear war, a super-volcano). I'm not talking multi-decades to centuries here as per global warming and rising sea levels or the coming of the next Ice Age.

The End of the World = the Destruction of Planet Earth ("When Worlds Collide" scenarios). That is, Planet Earth and obviously all and sundry on same go down the gurgler.

The End of the World = the Destruction of All Life on Planet Earth - a sterile Earth. Planet Earth survives, to a greater or lesser extent, but nothing biological survives.

The End of the World = the Elimination of All Human Beings on Planet Earth ("On the Beach" related scenarios). Planet Earth and most life forms, excluding humans, survive. Now the survivors might amount to only bacteria, cockroaches and rats, but all that matters here is that 100% of all members of the human species are no more. Welcome to Planet Earth: Human Population Zero.

The End of the World = Drastic Alterations to the Status Quo of Human Beings on Planet Earth. There's drastic chance of ending humanity, but ultimately not enough to wipe us all off the floor.

I think for most of the populace, the 'end of the world' means the demise of the majority of the human population, excluding them of course. In other words, it's akin to the "drastic alterations of the status quo of human beings on Planet Earth". It's 'Armageddon', 'the apocalypse', the 'end of days', the 'second coming', 'the rapture', or, stripped of any religious connotation, some sort of nuclear war, global pandemic, a combination of nasties caused by global warming, an asteroid strike that cataclysmic but not too cataclysmic, say it only wipes out 99.9% of humanity - that still leaves some six million odd bods and sods inhabiting the globe. Heck, with that number of survivors coupled with a 'be fruitful and multiply' scenario, Planet Earth will again be overpopulated with human beings pretty quick-smart. I mean we lost millions in WWII, but still the population expanded.

The End of the World in the Arts: A whole book could be written (and probably has been) on the end of the world theme in the movies and in literature, especially the science-fiction of the last 150 years or so. If someone can envision doomsday by one means or another, it's been turned into a film or a TV series or a novel or short story, sometimes with, sometimes without, a happy ending. The end of the world theme in the arts might not be as popular as romantic fiction or crime fiction or even westerns, but it forms a pretty solid subgenre block of the overall disaster film or novel nevertheless.

The End of the World in Mythology/Religion: In mythology (or religion) there is no permanent end of the world. There's always a rebirth, be it the Christian Armageddon or the Norse Ragnarok or within the Hindu mythology in India or even the various cyclic Mesoamerican cosmologies.

Take the Christian version: Well there's no disputing the Biblical (tall) tales that 'document' some sort of domestic disagreement between 'God' and some sort of entity we call today 'Satan'. If you believe those Biblical tall tales, the end result of that domestic dispute, Armageddon, isn't in fact in dispute. There's a decided element here of "This ain't over till it's over; this ain't finished yet; I'll be back"! However, if you believe the Bible and the Book of Revelation, then you realise that Armageddon should have taken place over 1900 plus years ago, at least according to Jesus Christ. He said that the final battle between good ('God') and evil ('Satan') - I bet he was biased in deciding who was what - would take place within a generation or two of his utterances. So, if it took place way back then it took place off planet and out of human sight - a real life 'Star Wars'. But if it hasn't happened yet, assuming 'God' and 'Satan' are really real extraterrestrials instead of mythological entities, then it probably isn't ever likely to. I mean you can only hold off a grudge match so long. Maybe they've kissed and made up, or...

If God or His scribes wished to make crystal clear the ideas and events and chronology central to 'the end of the world', Revelations, Armageddon, the Rapture, the Second Coming, etc., He or they failed - miserably. Any dozen Biblical scholars will give a dozen different interpretations of the 'end of days', from the literal to the metamorphic. The Book of Revelations, apparently that is, was intended for those of that era; that it was intended for generations far removed from those times is apparently not the case according to Biblical scholars. If you're not going to make your point clear, well, what's the point? How many hundreds upon hundreds of times have Biblical scholars prophesied the end of the world, or the end of days, or Armageddon, or the Second Coming, or Final Judgment (take your pick of relevant phrases) based on the Biblical verse? Well, we're still here! We are indeed still here, so, so much for the reliability of The Bible, or God's word, and/or the competence of so called Biblical experts. So, the next time some Bible-thumping Fundamentalist tells you that the 'end is nigh', take said message with a proverbial grain of salt and don't lose any sleep over it!

Now the Biblical tale of the global flood is in fact global! Cultures from around the world tell similar tales to the Biblical flood. The argument is that therefore the story must be true as these diverse cultures had no contact with each other. My answer to that is related to bovine fertilizer! End of the world tales, or myths, the concept of Armageddon, punishing the wicked with total catastrophe was as common and popular then as now. We all love a good 'end of the world' story that has a moral attached. Alas, the choices or mechanisms available for said end of the world stories to myth makers' way back then were rather limited. They had no knowledge of supernovae or gamma-ray bursts or massive solar flares or nuclear war and resulting holocausts or killer asteroids smacking into Planet Earth, etc. All they had to work with was the day-to-day sorts of routine natural events part and parcel of their daily lives. In fact, many tale-spinners might not have been familiar with, say, volcanoes, and while most relatively violent weather phenomena, like tornadoes, may be destructive, they aren't destructive enough to wipe out the wicked that populate a wide area. However, everyone would have experienced rain, heavy rain, even torrential rain say from hurricanes, etc. that resulted in minor flooding, or say witnessed storm surges from the sea that inundated the land, and/or witnessed rivers, ponds and lakes overflowing. It doesn't take that much imagination to notch up minor real events, in the guise of story telling, to mega disaster proportions. If it rains heavily for one day and there's some local flooding, up the ante to 40 days. It's difficult to imagine any story teller from 5000 years ago coming up with any other sort of end of the world scenario!

The one point to the end of the world, mega disaster stories is that there must be at least one survivor to tell the tale! I gather in this case that includes survivors such as Noah and kin.

I have read of one other explanation for universal flood stories. If I recall correctly, a student of Freud came up with the idea that the tellers/inventors of flood tales got the idea from dreams in their sleep. And they dreamed the dream all because they were asleep with relatively full bladders. Personally, I think that's a piss-weak explanation!

Then there's the Norse Ragnarok. The gods and the giants battle it out and the gods come out second best. But, there are survivors who start things up all over again. It's reflected in the Richard Wagner conclusion to his epic four linked opera series "Der Ring Des Nibelungen". The final opera, "Gotterdammerung" ("Twilight of the Gods") ends with the destruction of the gods, but a rebirth and a new beginning. The very characters who started off the whole Ring Cycle are the very same and only survivors at the end. Will history repeat itself?

The End of the World in Science: How can I destroy thee? Let me count the ways! Well, when counting up the possibilities, it could be a 'bang', a 'whimper', or anything in-between.

The End of the World in Science: Astronomy: There's the obvious cosmic connection. I mean the greater Universe out there isn't all that peaceful and tranquil. A great big rouge asteroid/comet could slam into us. A 'nearby' star could explode showering us with intense and deadly radiation. Even from quite a distance, a gamma ray burster could fry us. Perhaps a near invisible Black Hole could wander past just a wee bit too close and down the gravitational hatch we go. Closer to home, super-ultra one-in-a-billion-year solar storms could microwave us to oblivion. After that, things calm down a bit.

The End of the World in Science: Geology: Planet Earth can be pretty violent too, but nothing geology throws at us can cause out 100% extermination - probably. Earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, droughts, tsunamis, can all create total destructive chaos, but each is too local to be of global concern - except, maybe a super-volcano. Super-volcanoes, which have erupted and will erupt again, might only affect several hundreds-of-thousands to maybe millions of square miles directly vis-?-vis lava, etc. but the ash ejecta can quickly enter and traverse the entire atmosphere, blocking solar radiation causing global cooling and total disruption to the food chain. Then too there are the natural swings and roundabouts that now and again cause the Ice Ages. The saving grace there is that the transition from global normalcy to global Ice Age takes thousands of years - time enough for humans to adapt, even if not loving it.

The End of the World in Science: Biology: Lots of things can kill us - tigers and crocodiles and sharks, and related beasties, even invertebrates like certain species of spiders and shellfish and octopuses and jellyfish and wasps/bee stings and swarming army ants, etc. Still, we're more threat to them than they are to us. But, it's not the macro life forms that are going to do us in, it's the micro forms. We all get sick now and again. Bacteria and viruses have their wicked way with us or our bodies. Ultimately, we win every battle against them, except the last battle. They always win the war. In the end, they kill us, and to add insult to injury, feast off our remains! History is not without case studies of humans on mass (pandemics and epidemics) being slaughtered by these micro-beasties. There's nothing in the cards to guarantee that history won't repeat yet again. It's not beyond the bounds of possibility that bacteria and/or viruses, caring not one jot for our high IQ's and medical technology, won't exterminate us.

The End of the World in Science: Astrobiology: Then there's the old chestnut of alien invasion! That an alien (from space) might wipe us out might depend on whether the alien was or was not intelligent. If non-intelligent spores from space (panspermia) landed on Earth, well, it's alien invasion never-the-less. If said spores took a liking to our biochemistry, well, the 'alien' diseases of smallpox etc. had quite an effect on the native Mesoamericans post European contact. Of course those European invaders weren't exactly friendly as macro-beings either. In the similar, but extraterrestrial context, Planet Earth has attracted the attention of alien invaders near a zillion times in films, TV shows, novels and short stories. Most guys and gals would love to be as popular as Planet Earth is to the extraterrestrials! Still, invasion by extraterrestrial intelligences is highly unlikely. It's going to a heck of a lot of expenditure of time and effort for relatively little gain. I mean if you're a resident of the Big Apple, why would you, invade Paris for a loaf of bread when the necessary bakery ingredients are available in your local corner store. What could we have that the aliens couldn't find a lot closer to home, be it gold or water? No, the least likely end-of-the-world scenario is alien invasion - at least by intelligent aliens. And if aliens did want Planet Earth, they wouldn't have to fire a laser shot or even show up close and personal. All they need do is chuck a few large asteroids our way. There's nothing we could do about it and when the dust settles, Planet Earth is theirs.

The End of the World in Science Fiction: Apart from the above, there have been various proposals put forth about potential ways and means that Earth could meet doomsday that have very little scientific credibility. Some would argue that alien invasion is one such implausibility. What I have in mind here are somewhat 'mad scientist' schemes, say the creation in particle accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider of mini Black Holes that would eat us up from the inside out. Or somehow scientists could accidentally via weather modification experiments set off global storms that last for months, or trigger geological faults that would crack the world in two or more pieces. Then there are nuclear bombs that could send the planet careening out of orbit heading either into the Sun or out into the depths of interstellar space. Then there's the creation of artificial intelligences (robots and related) who eventually take over as the Top Dog life form. Then there are all those exotic super-weapons like neutron bombs or weapons with invented techno-babble names that sound impressive but mean absolutely nothing. Then there are those weird scenarios where one wakes up to find oneself as the last man on Earth for no apparent reason (albeit there are a very few others otherwise you're plot's pretty thin on the ground), though sometimes a plague turns 99.99% of humans into zombies and you're the near lone normal human fighting off the mob.

The End of the World in Social Fiction: Then there's the total worldwide breakdown of society, of government, of financial institutions, of law and order for no real logical reason (unlike say society in a post nuclear WWIII scenario). But, perhaps a super Global Financial Crisis, a GREAT DEPRESSION that makes the Great Depression look like the good times, or we finally exhaust our oil and gas supplies, might be a potential trigger. However, even in a society of total chaos, as witnessed by many such societies that have undergone such upheavals, there would be many survivors.

The End of the World via Terrorism: As opposed to military actions by entire countries and associated governments, terrorists and terrorism are small scale events, hardly global in nature. But it would be wrong to dismiss terrorists as having no end of the world potential.

There's only one plausible way IMHO that terrorists could bring about the end of the world. See the section 'End of the World: John's Best Guess Scenario' for the details.

*Terrorist suicide bombings - too local; no end of the world way.
*Terrorist chemical attacks - too local; no end of the world scenario.
*Terrorist nuclear weapons & related - nasty, but overall no way that would be an ultimate end of the world event.
*Terrorist biological warfare - where there's a will there's a way.

The End of the World in Prophecy: All that really needs to be said for the end of the world in prophecy - religiously themed or otherwise - is that there has been a 100% failure rate by end of the world prophets despite literally thousands of such predictions over thousands of years. Hardly a week goes by without some soothsayer predicting not only that the end is neigh but giving exact dates, even times. So, hands up please for all of you who have total conviction that the next end of the world prediction will bear fruit, say 21 May 2011 or 21 December 2012, the later currently on top of the prediction pops. Thought so!

There are several downsides to end of the world prophecy. It's not the same sort of harmless fun as consulting your daily horoscope in the paper. Firstly, there's the letdown, trauma, disappointment, humiliation, etc. suffered by the true believers when their idiocy is revealed for the entire world to see. There's the often bizarre behaviour of true believers before-the-fact - the break-up of family units, giving away all worldly goods and possessions, joining doomsday cults, sometimes to the tune of ritual suicides.

Then there's the lack of moral, ethical, law and order constraints - I mean if you really wanted for once in your life to live the good life, the best foods, the best wines, the most expensive resorts, the best women money can buy, all the fantasy dreams of the great unwashed, and you truly believed you only had a week to go before The End, well there's this bank down the road just begging to be robbed and a certain snooty little teller who's been asking for an extra hole in her head right between the eyes - how dare she turn you down for a date - well, why not? You're dead in a week anyway, so nothing much to lose is there?

Now extrapolate that up to a true believer who does hold some high position of real power. What if you could manipulate foreign policy in such a way as to ensure or bring forward Armageddon? Or, if the world's going to end tomorrow anyway and you believe that with all your heart and soul that's going to be the case, well you may as well press the nuclear button now. The leader of your most hated foreign power is laughing at your stupidity, so you're going to want to make sure it's doomsday for them too!

The End of the World: John's Best Guess Scenario: Okay, here's my best guess prophecy for our demise. Firstly, it's going to be at the hands of our fellow nutters. Now you'd have to admit there are all sorts of evil genus types out there. Fortunately, most lack the actual guts and finances to do any actual dirt on us. However, there are a number of highly motivated, highly educated, well financed 'mad scientist' terrorist types out there. As noted above, there's not much they can accomplish with bombs, even nuclear bombs, or explosives or chemicals at least in terms of eliminating humans from the face of the Earth. But, there's the ultimate in terrorist weaponry - the humble bacteria or virus that's been genetically or bio-engineered to cause a global pandemic can be a nasty threat indeed. It's not a Manhattan Project sized operation to bioengineer viruses and bacteria. A well equipped sophisticated lab, perhaps the size of a normal house would do. Several people well acquainted with genetic engineering techniques of micro-organisms, coupled with such information already readily available in the scientific literature, easily available via the Internet who have some sort of super-ultra hatred for humanity and who don't care a fig about themselves (as per suicide bombers) might be tempted to induce a global pandemic, wiping humanity once and for all from existence. I mean their motto might be: "Kill them all; God will sort out the mess". If people are willing to die in order to kill a relatively few others, like say the plane hijackers of 9/11 or your run-of-the-mill suicide bombers, then I can easily imagine some people would be willing to along for the doomsday ride if it meant taking the rest of the world with them - what a legacy, even if there's nobody left to read the obituary. Now a variation would be to destroy via an agricultural plague all food crops, but it's really easier to target just one species (i.e. - humans) than many dozens.

An ideal bio-weapon might be some bacteria or virus that had an incubation period of say 60 hours which gives it plenty of time in this age of jet travel to spread around the globe before anyone's the wiser that there's trouble brewing; the microbe would have an easy transmission means from human to human, probably airborne so actual human-to-human contact wouldn't be necessary; and most important it would be as close to 100% lethal as could be conceived. I imagine that no matter what a few will always have some sort of natural immunity, so wishing for total annihilation might be a stretch. Maybe, maybe not.

The End of the World for Absolute Certain: Now, to end on a downbeat note, let's return to scientific prophecy. Our world will end! That's 100% certain! At the very least it will end when the lifespan of our parent star, the Sun, ends. Just like your car has a limited supply of fuel in its gas tank, so too our Sun has a limited supply of fuel that keeps it burning forever. When the Sun exhausts its fuel, well you can kiss life on Planet Earth goodbye. However, least I scare you into losing a good night's sleep, that's still some roughly five billion years in the future, or so modern astronomical prophecy dictates. Even if that's off by 10%, well that still gives you plenty of time to enjoy the good life, including a good night's sleep.

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Teddy celebrates 112 years of love and hugs

Since 1902 teddy bears bring smiles to their owners, this is the year that a the Washington Post front page cartoon Assembly of cartoonist Clifford Barryman sent drawings. Theodore Roosevelt (Teddy) illustrated the cartoons are refusing, bear cub shoot a young. The cartoon titled "Drawing the Line in Mississippi" immediate attention.

Sometimes the smallest gestures speak volumes. Roosevelt was hunting in Mississippi, when the Group was he with a black bear lassoed and it to a tree bound. The President was waved and as he was stubbornly Roosevelt the bear refused bound and fear to shoot. He held it for unsportsmanlike to shoot the helpless animal.

The cartoon was frequently reprinted, and caught the attention of men and women shop owner, Morris and rose Michtom, owner of a small store for toys and novelty in Brooklyn, New York. The cartoon inspired the pair create a stuffed bear with black shoe button eyes. Michtom asked permission from Roosevelt, to use his name for the bears and soon, she began manufacturing and selling stuffed bears for every $1.50.

With the consent of the President that Michtom bears were founded in synchronized "Teddy Bears" and the ideal novelty and Toy Corporation. In 1938 she became the ideal toy company. About that at some point were the Michtom their bear manufacturing, a similar bear appeared in Germany. The company Steiff began producing its first jointed stuffed bears 1902-1903.

The charming toy bears are huggable and loved by children and adults around the world, so that they the world's third to the collectable item for stamps and coins. The highest price for an antique Steiff teddy bears was $250,000!

Barbara, a bear has stuffed bear for more than 20 years of work books collectors from Portland, Oregon. Their passion for the furry creatures began her two sons were grown. It has more than 100 bears, including children, young people and older bears.

"Everyone has a unique life-like quality," said Barbara. "The fuzzy bear appearance seems eluieren its special personality and a proper name for him or her come to me." All Barbara's bears have their own names.

Barbara's bears have two things in common. You are cherished and marked with special memories. Some are heart-warming stories in their background. Sometimes your bears are special gifts that it gives the love and encouragement to others.

Since the introduction of the more than 100-year Teddy bear-changed his appearance and customs, but over the years, the teddy bear remains a loveable symbol of childhood and innocence. Teddy is a part of our culture. Tweed Roosevelt, great-grandson of Theodore Roosevelt has said, "I think that Teddy bear has, to all represent, that is good about people."

What do you call a collector of Teddy bears? A Arctophilist. Yes, is there a name for the avid collector as Barbara. Today, Teddy bears produced and sold today by many different toy manufacturers and as the first bear, today bears still the bear inspired the through life to commemorate Teddy Roosevelt.

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